QuickUI Catalog released

The QuickUI Catalog has been updated to version This is a modest update in terms of functionality, but a significant milestone for the catalog — it represents the culmination of an effort to port all the Catalog controls to a combination of CoffeeScript and LESS.

The original QuickUI framework included the use of a local build tool called the QuickUI markup compiler. This compiled a markup format that was essentially HTML plus the use of custom tags. (In this, the format was remarkably similar to the spec’ed format for Web Components.) Because this format never got any traction, it was eventually deprecated, although still used for the vast majority of the Catalog controls. 2013 has begun with a major push to port all these controls to CoffeeScript for content and behavior and LESS for appearance.

Now that that port has been accomplished, it will be easier to move the Catalog forward, including the addition of new controls and some refactoring of existing ones. Along with this port, a handful of other controls were added to the Catalog:

  • ToggleButton is a button that can track a selected state. This can be used as is, or as a base class for custom toggle classes.
  • Link wraps a standard HTML <a> tag, and can be used as a base class for custom link classes.
  • TextBox wraps a standard HTML text input element, and can be used as a base class for custom text box classes.

QuickUI 0.9.3 released

This minor release is being made now because it contains a fix for the forthcoming release of jQuery 1.9. Changes:

  • A new Control member called Control.browser replicates the behavior of the now-deprecated jQuery.browser member. jQuery is quite reasonably trying to encourage people to use feature-detection libraries like Modernizr instead of looking directly at the user agent to determine behavior, and jQuery 0.9 is removing support for jQuery.browser. However, in developing the QuickUI Catalog controls, minor bugs have been found time and again in specific browsers to prevent controls from working correctly. These bugs are the sorts of things that will never be detectable with a feature-detection library, and hence checking the browser’s user agent is the only practical way to ensure cross-browser compatibility.

The corresponding release of QuickUI Catalog 0.9.3 includes some minor enhancements:

  • A new TextBoxWithButton control covers the common UI pattern of a text box with an adjacent button (often labeled “Go” or something similar). The existing SearchBox control has been refactored to derive from TextBoxWithButton.
  • A new Log control handles the common need to log text output (e.g., from a background process) to the page.

QuickUI 0.9.2 released

Version 0.9.2 is primarily a bug-fix release. Beyond a variety of minor fixes, there are just a couple of notable changes:

  1. Using $.control( element ) on an existing element to cast the element to the correct subclass of Control now returns null (instead of undefined) if the given element is not a control.
  2. A bug has been fixed which prevented quickui.js from loading in IE8. Thanks to QuickUI user Toussaint for reporting this bug and helping to test the fix!

The release of 0.9.2 coincides with the release of version 0.9.2 of the QuickUI Catalog, which includes the following:

  1. Modes now derives from a new base class called Sequence, a general-purpose class for any linear sequence of elements that can be navigated via a next() and previous() method. Modes now focuses on showing just one element of a Sequence at a time. As part of this change, Modes.activeChild() has been renamed to Modes.activeElement().
  2. SlidingPages has been renamed SlidingPanels (since its contained elements aren’t necessarily pages). The class now also derives from Sequence. Finally, SlidingPanels has been updated to take advantage of CSS transitions on browsers that support them, falling back to a jQuery animation on older browsers.
  3. LateralNavigator has been refactored to handle two general cases: first, navigating through a Sequence of elements, and second navigating through an abstract axis like time. The former case is specifically addressed with a new class called SequenceNavigator. The latter case is used in CalendarMonthNavigator.
  4. An issue that prevented CalendarMonthNavigator from correctly vertically aligning its heading elements has been fixed. CalendarMonthNavigator now also uses a new class, MonthAndYear, to show both the month and year instead of just the month name.
  5. A new VerticalAlign class handles the general problem of vertically aligning child elements in older browsers.
  6. A new Carousel class derives from SequenceNavigator, and uses a SlidingPanels class to provide a sliding transition between elements in the sequence.
  7. The TabSet class has been renamed to Tabs.

This release is also notable as the first one in which Catalog controls have been written (and, some cases, rewritten) in CoffeeScript.

The Web Components spec should add support for multiple, named, DOM-valued properties

At last week’s Google I/O 2012 conference, Chrome engineers Alex Komoroske and Dimitri Glazkov gave a talk called, The Web Platform’s Cutting Edge, a good overview of Web Components and custom elements in particular. The demo code shown in that presentation does point to an issue with the current Web Components spec that could seriously constrain the ease with which components can be written and shared. I’ll lay out the case here in hopes this problem can be fixed at an early stage.

But first: A word of appreciation

Authoring a spec for a new standard like Web Components is generally a thankless task, as is the tireless work of promulgating the standard through presentations like the one at Google I/O. So, before saying anything else: a big Thank You to Alex and Dimitri for their work on HTML Templates, Custom Elements, and Shadow DOM. Everything which follows is meant to support your work, not put it down.

Background of the problem

As I’ve blogged about before, I’m a passionate fan of web UI components and believe they will transform UI development. The ability to define new elements for HTML is something designers and developers have long wanted but, until now, could only dream about. In the demo, Alex and Dimitri use Chrome’s early implementation of the proposed spec to create custom elements. They elegantly combine these elements to produce a custom UI component for a user poll:

Web Component Poll

This poll user interface is a large component comprised of sub-components for accordions (or, later in the demo, tabs) and the big iconic choice buttons in the poll for “Semantics”, “Offline & Storage”, etc. All these components are defined with declarative markup.

I enthusiastically agree with the presenters that declarative HTML, including the ability to define custom elements, results in UI code that can be easier to read than a comparable imperative solution in JavaScript. And to its credit, most of the demo code shown in the presentation is self-explanatory.

However, one aspect of the code really jumped out at me as a serious limitation of the current spec: a component host can only pass a single DOM content subtree to the component. As I’ll try to show, I believe that could seriously limit the degree to which a component can expose a meaningful API.

Consider the markup behind those big “choice” buttons. Each choice component includes an icon, a short text summary used as a label, and longer descriptive text that appears in a tooltip on hover. You can think of that per-choice data as, in effect, three public properties of the choice component:

<element name=”x-choice” extends=”div” constructor=”ChoiceControl”>
        <div id=”choice”>
            <div id=”icon” class=”mask”></div>
            <content select=”h3:first-of-type”></content>
                <content select=”*”></content>

The code above makes use of the proposed <content> element to select specific portions of the DOM tree (using CSS selectors) and incorporate them into the component’s shadow DOM. With that in place, the code for the overall poll component (i.e., the choice host) can instantiate choice buttons with the following markup:

<x-choice value=”semantics”>
    <p>Giving meaning to structure, semantics are front and…</p>
<x-choice value=”offline-storage”>
    <h3>Offline & Storage</h3>
    <p>Web apps can start faster and work even if there is no…</p>

So the first code fragment effectively defines a choice component with three public properties (although these aren’t actually class properties). The second code fragment shows the creation of two instances of that choice component, filling in two of the three choice properties. It’s not shown where the icon property is filled in, but it’s presumably done through styling.

All looks fine so far, but there are some serious issues lurking here.


The root issue here is that, as currently speced, Web Components can only accept a single DOM-valued content property via markup. This leads to a profusion of problems:

  1. Asking developers to tease apart component content will mean work for devs, and produce inconsistent results.

    Why, exactly, is the choice component using the <h3> tag to specify the text label for the button? Because this component has two textual properties, and the current Web Components spec only lets the developer pass one DOM content subtree to a component. So the component’s author developer has to somehow let the component’s users pack more than one property into the content, and then the dev has to crack that content to extract those properties. The question of how to crack that single content subtree into multiple properties is left entirely up to the developer.

    The tool given to the developer for this purpose is CSS selectors, which at first glance seems powerful. Unfortunately, it’s also a recipe for inconsistency. Every developer will have the freedom—and chore—to approach this problem their own way, guaranteeing the emergence of a handful of different strategies, plus a number of truly bizarre solutions.

    It’s as if you were programming in a system where functions could only accept a single array. As it turns out, we already have a good, common example of a such a system: command line applications. Every command-line application has some main() function that’s handed a single array of command line options, and the application has to decide what to do with them. Although conventions eventually arose with respect to the order and meaning of arguments, there’s still a wide variety of approaches. Some apps rely on argument position, some rely on single-letter flags (“-a”), some rely on full-word named parameters (“–verbose”), some have idiosyncratic microgrammars (e.g., chmod permissions), and many applications support a rich combination of all these approaches.

    Parsing arguments is tedious, boring work. In the early days, a developer throwing an app together might do the absolute minimum work necessary. The result was often inconsistent or incomplete argument support. The dev might eventually be forced to hack on their app until they finally had a roughly functional command line parser. These days, developers can rely on language features, or libraries like Python’s argparse, to “crack” the argument array into a meaningful structure which can be more easily inspected. In particular, it’s invaluable to a developer to be able to directly inspect specific arguments by name.

    The use of CSS selectors does remove some of this tedium, but it still leaves devs without a consistent way to refer to component properties by name, thereby leaving the door wide open for inconsistency. A dev might decide to use DOM structure, HTML tags, element classes, or a combination of all of these to demarcate properties. This will make it much harder for devs to share components, to swap out one component for another, and so on. It would be better if we could learn from the command-line argument example now and head off this inconsistency.

  2. HTML semantics are nearly meaningless when used to identify parameters.

    In the Google I/O demo, the developer of the choice component elected to use HTML tags within the single content subtree to identify properties. In this case, they decided that the first <h3> element in the content would identify the summary text, and everything else would be used as the longer text description.

    But why use <h3> for this purpose? The W3C spec says a heading tag like <h3> should be used to, “briefly describe the topic of the section it introduces”. These choices aren’t introducing sections, so that can’t be the the case here. Neither is this <h3> being used to reflect the rank of an element in a hierarchical document structure.

    In all likelihood, the <h3> is used here, as it often is in practice, to mean something like, “somewhat prominent, but not too prominent”. Visually this usually translates to, “bold text, a little bigger than the body text”. At least, that seems to be how <h3> is being used in this component.

    There’s nothing really wrong with that, but it’s clearly arbitrary. Other developers might easily make a different decision. Later, in the very same demo, the code for the poll component accepts the text label for a different Voting button through the use of a <label> element. So in one place in this app, a button’s label is specified with an <h3>, but elsewhere in the same app, a button’s label is specified with a <label>. I don’t think this reflects any particular negligence on the part of the demo’s developers. I think it’s a latent issue in any scheme that relies on HTML elements for something than the original purpose. Perhaps the code’ s developers did have some reason in mind for using <label> in one place and <h3> in another, but the point is that the reason is not obvious to another party looking at the code.

    The same arbitrary nature of tag choice here applies to use of the <aside> tag to identify the choice description. Try this: show the poll screen shot above to 3 web developers, and ask them which HTML tag they would use to specify the tooltip that should appear when the user mouses over a choice button. I’d be surprised if even one of them picked the <aside> tag. Is the tooltip content here really, as the W3C description says for the <aside> element, “tangentially related to the content around the aside element, and which could be considered separate from that content”? Well, not really. But, maybe; that’s a debatable point. The fact it’s debatable is what’s at issue here.

    In contrast, here’s a tautological statement which wouldn’t generate debate: the choice description in the tooltip is the choice description in the tooltip. The local semantics here aren’t in question. So it’s a shame the property can’t be described in contextual terms like “description”, or “tooltip”.

    The fact that the component is using HTML elements to identify arguments appears sensible, but in practice will be nearly meaningless. Every single time a dev needs to create a new component property, they’ll pick from the 100-odd HTML elements. Their selection may depend on their experience, their mood, the phase of the moon, and which handful of HTML elements they haven’t already used for other properties on the same component. It’s highly likely a different developer (or the same developer on a different day) would make a different selection of HTML elements for the same properties.

    Imagine an object-oriented programming language that forced you to give class properties one of 100 sanctioned property names: “index”, “count”, “name”, etc. Evereyone’s classes would look consistent, but it would be an utterly false consistency. That’s effectively what we’ll get if component authors are forced to choose HTML tags to identify component properties.

  3. Use of CSS selectors hinders a developer’s ability to add new properties.

    Suppose the author of this component needs to add a new property to this choice component. Maybe they want to add a “More about this choice” link to each choice; this link should navigate to another page with more details on that poll choice. Following the example of the <h3> for the choice summary, they decide to define this link property by extracting the first <a> tag in the content to be the link to the “More about this choice” page.

    Perhaps, following their use of the “h3:first-of-type” selector above, they decide to pick out this <a> tag with the similar CSS selector “a:first-of-type”. If they do so, this component author will inadvertently screw up any component user who happened to include an <a> tag somewhere in the description. Suppose a user of this component has already created some code for a choice like this:

    <x-choice value=”semantics”>
            Semantics in <a href=”…”>HTML5</a> applications…

    The “a:first-of-type” selector for the “More about this choice” link will accidentally pick up the existing link, thereby breaking this use of the component. The component author could issue a “Breaking Change” notice, warning everyone to include an <a> tag before the choice description. But even that wouldn’t help someone who, for whatever reason, needed to embed an <a> inside of the <h3>.

    The use of selectors here could be made more robust by using the child selector “>”, as in “> h3:first-of-type”. But this gets verbose, and again, isn’t likely to be a universal convention, and inconsistent use of the child selector will only add to the confusion. The fundamental problem is that using CSS selectors for this purpose is inherently fragile.

  4. Arbitrary parameter structure is brittle.

    The fragility of using CSS selectors remains even if one tries to avoid the use of arbitrary HTML elements. Suppose you decide to use element position to identify components. You’ll still up a component which is hard to update.

    Here, a relevant case study is the existing of positional function parameters in most programming languages. To take just one example, consider JavaScript functions. Suppose you’ve defined a function with three parameters: “function foo(a, b, c) {…}”. If you now want to add a new parameter “d”, you have to add it to the end of the argument list to avoid breaking existing users of your function. This can easily produce a function whose parameter order feels unnatural. And to use the new “d” parameter, a function caller must supply the intermediate arguments a, b, and c, even if those are irrelevant to the function call at hand.

    To avoid these problems, programming languages tend to eventually evolve named function parameters. Functions with named parameters are inherently more future-proof and, importantly, allow callers to only specify the parameters they care about.

    The lesson of positional function parameters applies to trying to parse component properties out of the DOM content subtree. Having learned this lesson in countless programming languages, it would be nice to just jump straight to a reasonable solution which allowed for named component properties. While CSS selectors represent a powerful parsing tool, much of that power is completely unnecessary in this context — and some people will inevitably put that extra power to poor use.

  5. Subclasses will compete for parameters with their base classes.

    The above situations quickly deteriorate further when one envisions extending an existing component via subclassing. Subclassing is a crucial means of efficiency in component development, in which the behavior of one component can be specialized for new purposes. As just one case, over 33% of the controls in the QuickUI Catalog are subclasses of other Catalog controls. For example, both DateComboBox and ListComboBox extend ComboBox, which itself extends PopupSource. This separation of concerns is vital to keep the code clean, organized, and maintainable.

    Such subclasses would likely become unworkable as Web Components, because each level of the class hierarchy will be competing with its ancestors and descendants as they all tried to extract properties from the single DOM content subtree permitted by the Web Components spec. If the choice class extracts an <h3> element from the content, then that element is effectively invisible to the <content> selectors of its subclasses. (Or, if you let subclasses have first shot at the content, then the elements they pull out are effectively invisible to their base classes.)

    This significantly complicates point #3 above (using CSS selectors to pull out properties from the DOM content subtree makes it hard to add new properties). Consider a subclass of the choice component above called, say, special-choice. Perhaps the author of special-choice has decided to use the HTML <h4> element to identify a particular property. Now the author of the base choice component decides to add a new property, and elects to use <h4> for this purpose themselves. This has the effect of breaking the special-choice subclass. Obviously, such naming conflicts can arise in regular OOP classes, but here the likelihood of conflict is much greater because of the highly constrained vocabulary of HTML elements.

    Using DOM structure to select properties (point #4, above) is even more brittle when one considers subclasses. If a component class decides to use DOM element position to select content for a given property, and someone creates a subclass that likewise uses element position, the original base class’ API is effectively frozen. Suppose the base class defines a <content> element with selector “:nth-child(3)” , and the subclass goes ahead and uses a <content> with selector “:nth-child(4)”. How is the base class supposed to add support for a new property now? They can’t use position 4, because a subclass is already using that.

    The situation could be worked around by requiring not just specific tags, but also specific class names, but this has problems of its own (see below).

    As currently drafted, the Web Components spec seems highly likely to close off the possibility of rich component hierarchies. Most component developers will probably elect to just copy-and-paste useful code from other developers, rather than subclassing them, to preserve the ability to modify their components in the future.

  6. Class names could help identify properties, but will probably just complicate everything.

    One way to skirt the problems above is to use HTML element classes to identify properties by class name, and reference these classes in the CSS selectors. If you gave up on specific HTML tags, and just used a <div> and a named element class for all properties, the second code fragment above could look like this:

    <x-choice value=”semantics”>
       <div class=”summary”>Semantics</div>
       <div class=”description”>Giving meaning to structure…</div>
    <x-choice value=”offline-storage”>
        <div class=”summary”>Offline & Storage</div>
        <div class=”description”>Web apps can start faster…</div>

    This could potentially work if everyone agreed to always using an element class name to identify a property, and consistently applied those classes to a single element type (likely <div>) which everyone agreed upon would stand for “parameter”.

    Unfortunately, the more likely result is that throwing element class names into the mix will just complicate everything further. Some devs will write their components that way, but others will insist the use of HTML elements as shown above. Some will require the use of both specific HTML elements and specific class names. E.g., the choice component’s summary property will be forced to be identified with <h3.summary> to avoid possible conflicts with other <h3> elements in the content. This would be verbose and, worse, as a component user you’d have to remember and specify two things, when one should be sufficient.

  7. Invisible component APIs foreclose the possibility of inspection and reflection.

    The choice component in this example effectively presents its hosts with an external API that allows the host to fill in two text properties. Unfortunately, that API is implicit in the design of the <content> elements and their selectors. That makes it hard to programmatically understand what a component is doing.

    At design time, there’s no easy way to statically analyze the code to inspect what those <content> elements are actually being used for. You could potentially parse the HTML to find the <content> elements, then parse their CSS selectors, but that still wouldn’t give you any hints as to what those <content> elements were being used for. At least a formal property name gives you a real idea as to its purpose.

    And at runtime, there would be no easy way to ask a choice component instance questions about which properties it supports: “How many properties do you have?”, or “Do you have a ‘description’ property?” Such run-time inspection of a component’s API (also known as reflection) can be a powerful tool.

    In this very presentation, Google’s developers point toward the benefits of programmatic inspection when they observe that giving web developers the ability to create new custom elements (via the <element> tag) will open new possibilities in researching possible improvements to HTML itself. For example, researchers could statically inspect Web Components actually used by production web sites to determine, for example, the names of the most common custom elements. That in turn could help guide the formal adoption of new HTML elements in future versions of the language itself.

    That’s just one example of what’s possible when APIs are explicit. Such explicitness should be extended beyond component names to cover component property names as well.

A proposal to fix this: Support multiple, named, DOM-valued component properties

All the issues above could be eliminated or dramatically improved if the Web Components spec were amended to let developers create components that accept multiple, named, DOM-valued properties. (Presumably, this support would actually be added to HTML Templates, used by both <element> and <decorator> elements.)

Here are some possible syntax suggestions:

  • Proposal A: Use a consistent tag for component properties.

    A convention of using <div> elements to hold properties (see point #6 above) is a bit odd, because the <div> tag is used simply as a placeholder. The convention could be improved by formalizing a new element specifically for this purpose. Perhaps the existing <param> tag, currently limited to use within <object> elements, could be given new life by being repurposed for use within components. Its definition would need to be extended to support a closing </param> tag form that could encapsulate a DOM subtree:

    <x-choice value=”semantics”>
        <param name=”summary”>Semantics</param>
        <param name=”description”>Giving meaning to …</param>
    <x-choice value=”offline-storage”>
        <param name=”summary”>Offline & Storage</param>
        <param name=”description”>Web apps can start …</param>

    If <param> can’t be redefined this way, then a new tag like <property> could be created.

    If HTML semantics zealots insist on mapping component content to HTML elements, it’d be possible to let define a component author identify a backing HTML semantic tag that should be used to treat the property’s content for search and other purposes. E.g., syntax within the <element> definition would indicate that the “summary” property should be backed by an <h3> element. This is exactly the way that the <element> tag’s “extends” attribute is already spec’ed to work. The author indicates that an <x-choice> element is backed by a <div>.

    In the exact same way, the author could indicate that a <param> (or <property>) of name=”summary” should be backed by an <h3>. As noted above, the particular choice of backing HTML element might be inconsistent or meaningless, but at least use of a backing element confines the problem to a much smaller audience. That is, the component users shouldn’t need to know that summary property behaves like an <h3>, just like they don’t have to know that an <x-choice> behaves like a <div>. Rather, that would be something only the component author would need to concern themselves with.

  • Proposal B: Expand data- attributes to support data- elements

    HTML developers can already attach arbitrary string data to HTML elements as data- attributes (that is, element attributes prefixed with “data-”). Web Components could build on this precedent to allow data- elements that specify DOM subtrees nested within the component’s content. For example:

    <x-choice value=”semantics”>
        <data-description>Giving meaning to …</data-description>
    <x-choice value=”offline-storage”>
        <data-summary>Offline & Storage</data-summary>
        <data-description>Web apps can start …</data-description>

    In the case where the property values are pure text, a <data-foo> element could be interchangeable with the corresponding data-foo attribute within the component tag. So one could also write:

    <x-choice value=”semantics” data-summary=”Semantics”>
        <data-description>Giving meaning to …</data-description>
    <x-choice value=”offline-storage” data-summary=”Offline & Storage”>
        <data-description>Web apps can start …</data-description>

    The data- element form would only need to be used when specifying a real DOM subtree with subelements; otherwise, the data- attribute form could be used.

  • Proposal C (preferred): Let developers define custom property elements

    The above approach could be tightened further by dropping HTML’s historic obsession with restricting the set of tags. By dropping by the “x-“ in the custom element tag, and the “data-“ in the custom property tag, we end up with something much cleaner:

    <choice value=”semantics”>
        <description>Giving meaning to structure, …</description>
    <choice value=”offline-storage”>
        <summary>Offline & Storage</summary>
        <description>Web apps can start faster …</description>

    As with the data- element approach above, this custom property element approach could also support the use of a data- attribute on the element tag itself when specifying a simple string property value.

    The cleanliness of the code above comes at the cost of an ambiguity: if you can define your own element tags and property tags, how does the parser know which is which? In the code above, is <summary> a property of <choice>, or is it a custom element in its own right? One resolution would be a precedence rule, e.g., if <summary> is a child of a parent that has a summary property, then treat it as a property, otherwise instantiate it as a custom element. Another resolution would be to follow what Microsoft did with XAML’s property element syntax: allow (or require) the property to be written as <choice-summary>.

    As noted above, if HTML powers that be insist on mapping component content to a fixed set of HTML elements, that could  be handled by letting a component author indicate the HTML element which should be used to back each property. Again, that would relegate the problem to something that only the component author would have to worry about. The writer of the code above that hosts the choice component wouldn’t have to obsess over the question of why <aside> was picked instead of <label>; that detail would only be visible by reading the code for the choice component. The host author only has to deal with <summary>, which has local meaning.

    In any event, the above code sample is clean, and should serve as a goal. Such code would be a joy to write — and read. It moves HTML definitively towards the creation of domain-specific languages, which is where it should go.

    It’s somewhat absurd that we can only define markup terms according to global consensus. That’s like waiting for a programming language committee to approve the names of your classes. The web will move forward at a much faster pace if we can let individual problem domains (online stores, news sites, social networks, games, etc.) define their own tags, with semantics they care about and can agree upon. As the aforementioned uses of <aside> and <label> illustrate, forcing developers to use HTML elements may give the appearance of consistent semantics, but that consistency is merely a facade. In contrast, letting polling organizations define the meaning of a <summary> property for a <choice> component could produce meaningful consistency within that industry.

There’s still time to fix this

In their presentation, Alex and Dimitri indicated that their goal is not to spec out a complete replacement for web UI frameworks. Rather, the goal of their work is to lay a solid foundation on top of which great web UI frameworks can be built by others. In this light, it is hoped that the Web Components spec can be amended to support multiple, named, DOM-valued properties — because that’s exactly the foundation a great web UI framework is going to need.

The QuickUI framework, at least, is more expressive with regard to component content than is possible within the current Web Components spec. That is to say, the existing Catalog of QuickUI controls (and the many others controls written in the service of specific QuickUI-based applications) could not be ported to the current Web Components spec. Or, perhaps, those controls could be ported — but then, for the reasons given above, the collection would then become so brittle that its evolution would come to a halt. That would be a shame.

To be sure, the Google team, and the others working on Web Components, are smart folks, and it’s likely they’ve already given at least some thought to the problems raised in this post. But more input, particularly when informed by real application experience by potential users of a standard, is always valuable in weighing decisions about what should go into the standard. And it’s in that spirit that this post is written.

If you yourself have worked with component frameworks, and have experiences that bear on this issue, please share them with the folks at Google. A good forum for feedback might be the Web Components page on Google+. (Be sure to thank everyone for their work!)

Sample Contacts application using Backbone and QuickUI

Back in April, someone evaluating QuickUI made the completely reasonable request to see a complete sample application created in QuickUI. More specifically, they were interested in seeing a demonstration of how to use QuickUI as the View in an MVC (Model-View-Controller) application, ideally using the popular Backbone.js library. QuickUI is well suited to fill that role, and a sample application has now been created to show off how to do exactly that.

The result is a sample Contacts application built in QuickUI. The sample takes advantage of QuickUI’s support for CoffeeScript, which turns out to be an elegant language to express both Backbone and QuickUI classes.

Read the sample’s documentation for more details of its construction.

How jQuery instantiates objects as jQuery.fn.init, and what that means if you want to subclass jQuery

In order for the recent release of QuickUI 0.9.1 to support concise creation of control classes in CoffeeScript, it was necessary to go deep into the bowels of jQuery’s class constructor to determine how it worked. Those findings are documented here in case others have a similar need to subclass jQuery, or would like to address the same need that drove jQuery to its current implementation.

The jQuery class constructor can be found in core.js:

jQuery = function( selector, context ) {
    // The jQuery object is actually just the init constructor 'enhanced'
    return new jQuery.fn.init( selector, context, rootjQuery );

But the comment doesn’t do much to explain why init exists, or how it works.

All jQuery developers are familiar with the form $(“div”), which is a shorthand for the longer jQuery(“div”). This, we are told, returns a new jQuery object. Actually, from the above constructor, we can see that what it really returns is an instance of the jQuery.fn.init class. (From here on out, we’ll just refer to that class as “init”.) The init constructor is defined like so:

jQuery.fn = jQuery.prototype = {
    init: function( selector, context, rootjQuery ) {

Here, first note that jQuery.fn is just a synonym for jQuery.prototype. Given that, we see that the init class constructor hangs off the jQuery prototype. Stashing the init class on the jQuery class’ prototype allows the jQuery library to avoid polluting the JavaScript global namespace with an extra class. (Of course, init could easily have been defined inside the outer jquery.js function closure, which would avoid namespace pollution and prevent access to it from outside. The init class isn’t really referred to elsewhere in the jQuery source, so it’s not immediately clear why that wasn’t done. Perhaps the above approach makes for easier debugging.)

Further on, we see this init class defined as a subclass of the jQuery class:

// Give the init function the jQuery prototype for later instantiation
jQuery.fn.init.prototype = jQuery.fn;

Since jQuery.fn is just an abbreviation for jQuery.prototype, the above line is really:

jQuery.prototype.init.prototype = jQuery.prototype;

This ensures that any instance of init will also be a functional instance of jQuery. This can be confirmed in the debugger:

> $e = $("div")
> $e instanceof jQuery
> $e instanceof jQuery.fn.init

So all those times when you create an instance of jQuery you are actually working with an instance of a jQuery subclass.

Okay, but why bother? One reason is that jQuery wants to support a static constructor form: one you can invoke with needing to specify “new”. Regardless of whether you invoke the jQuery() constructor with “new” or not, it’s always going to return an instance of the init class. And, because init is a subclass of jQuery, you’ll end up with an instance of jQuery, which is what you wanted.

// The following lines are all equal.
var $e = new jQuery("div");
var $e = jQuery("div");
var $e = new $("div");
var $e = $("div");

So at least one reason init exists is that it serves as a helper class to let you write shorter jQuery code. The thing is, supporting instantiation without “new” doesn’t require defining a separate helper class.

The jQuery constructor above is relying upon an oddity in the JavaScript language: a constructor can return an object that’s an instance of a class other than the class defined by the constructor. The jQuery class could more easily use the simpler factory constructor pattern to check to see whether it’s been invoked without “new” (in which case “this” will be the window) and, if so, just return a new instance of itself. That is, in fact, how jQuery worked back in jQuery 1.1:

var jQuery = function(a,c) {
    // If the context is global, return a new object
    if ( window == this )
        return new jQuery(a,c);

By jQuery 1.2, however, the jQuery constructor was using the technique shown above. It’s hard to tell from the code exactly why the init helper class was introduced. One possibility is that init has that extra rootjQuery parameter which is for internal use only. Burying that parameter in a helper class avoids having to expose the parameter in the jQuery API, where it might confuse jQuery developers or, worse, encourage them to create code that depends upon that parameter.

Subclassing jQuery

One cost of jQuery’s class scheme is that it makes it much harder for you to subclass jQuery. One reason you might want to do this is to provide scoping for your own jQuery plugins. If you want to add a lot of plugins to jQuery’s prototype (which, as indicated above, is what you’re doing when you add something to jQuery.fn), you could potentially pollute the jQuery namespace and run into conflicts with other plugins. By subclassing jQuery, and working strictly with instances of your subclass, you hide all your plugins from anyone who’s directly instantiating the plain jQuery class.

Unfortunately, because of this init helper class, the normal JavaScript prototype-based subclassing scheme won’t work with jQuery. To make your subclass jQuery-like, you end up needing to replicate jQuery’s complex helper class arrangement: create a subclass of jQuery and a companion init helper class, derive your helper class from your actual jQuery subclass, and ensure your subclass’s constructor actually returns an instance of your init class.

The mind-breaking pain of all that is presumably what led to the creation of a jQuery function called $.sub(). That function does exactly what’s described above: it defines a new subclass of jQuery and a companion init helper class.

The $.sub() plugin doesn’t seem to be used much, perhaps because its benefits and reason for existence aren’t well-documented. The announced plan is that $.sub() will be removed from the core jQuery library in version 1.8, and transition to become an official plugin. As a result, $.sub() is deprecated as a native jQuery feature, but $.sub() and its technique will continue to be useful, so it’s still worth understanding and considering it.

QuickUI relies upon the $.sub() technique to make its base Control a subclass of jQuery. This is what lets you use any jQuery feature with QuickUI controls directly: you can bind events to them with $.on(), you can style them with $.css(), and so on. That’s because your control class derives from Control, and so ultimately derives from jQuery.

You can create a new QuickUI control class in JavaScript by invoking Control.sub(). And, with QuickUI 0.9.1, you can now create subclasses of Control (and, therefore, jQuery ) using CoffeeScript’s built-in class syntax, which is concise and highly legible. In either language, you can easily create your own reusable web user interface components that have direct access to all the power of jQuery.

QuickUI 0.9.1 released

QuickUI 0.9.1 contains two changes:

First, it’s now even easier to create web user interface components in CoffeeScript. When CoffeeScript support in QuickUI was first announced a month ago, you had to include a boilerplate constructor. This was required to work around a limitation in CoffeeScript, in which CoffeeScript’s default constructor for a class didn’t return a value. (See a good summary of the issue here.) That issue has now been fixed in CoffeeScript 1.3.3. With a considerable degree of rework in the base Control class, you can now create a new user interface control in a single line of CoffeeScript:

control window.MyButton extends BasicButton

The QuickUI documentation for creating controls in CoffeeScript has been updated to reflect this.

Second, QuickUI 0.9.1 has a simplified model for generic styling. The QuickUI Catalog controls define generic styles that allow them to function without you needing to provide styling for them. You can easily turn off a base class’ generic style by setting the subclass’ generic() property to false.

Some observations on porting the QuickUI runtime from plain JavaScript to CoffeeScript

This post shares some highlights of the experience porting a non-trivial library from plain JavaScript to CoffeeScript in case other parties are considering a similar transition.

Yesterday’s announcement of QuickUI 0.9 mentioned that the framework source code has now been ported to CoffeeScript. The QuickUI framework is intended for plain JavaScript development as well; nothing in the change of source language changes that. But experimentation with the CoffeeScript language suggested there were enough advantages to the language that, going forward, it would be worth porting the runtime from plain JavaScript to CoffeeScript.

Overall, the port from plain to JavaScript to CoffeeScript went rather smoothly, and the bulk of it took about two days. The QuickUI runtime, quickui.js, is a reasonably complex JavaScript library, which is to say that it’s not a toy or trivial sample application. The last plain JavaScript version of the QuickUI runtime, quickui-0.8.9.js, was about 7700 lines of plain JavaScript (including comments), or about 60K, developed over the course of four and a half years.

Automatic translation with js2Coffee

The handy js2coffee conversion tool was used to kickstart the port. Kudos to Rico Sta. Cruz for this great tool.

  • The automatically translated CoffeeScript immediately passed 97% of the QuickUI unit test suite. The remaining 4 broken tests were do to a single issue related to translation of the “instanceof” keyword, which was easy enough to work around.
  • The one thing js2coffee doesn’t translate (yet) are comments, so these had to be copied over by hand. Tedious, but straightforward.
  • Similarly, the js2coffee output sometimes produced long lines that needed to be hand-broken for legibility. Again, a bit tedious but straightforward.
  • Once all unit tests passed, the unit tests themselves were ported to CoffeeScript by the same process.

After about a morning of work, a CoffeeScript-based quickui.js was functional. It passed all unit tests, and could actually be used to drive a non-trivial QuickUI-based body of code like the QuickUI Catalog.

Towards idiomatic CoffeeScript

After the mechanical port with js2coffee, various CoffeeScript idioms were applied incrementally to replace the standard JavaScript idioms with their more concise CoffeeScript versions. This took another day and half or so.

  • There was occasion to use pretty much all of CoffeeScript’s syntactic sugar. References to Foo.prototype.bar() were replaced with the more concise Foo::bar(). Closure variables to hold “this” for use in an event handler were replaced with CoffeeScript’s “=>” syntax. Etc., etc.
  • Because CoffeeScript can wrap a body of code in a single function closure, this no longer needed to be done by hand. A wrapping closure like that can complicate the management of a pile of plain JavaScript files. The closure will typically have to be created through a build process that includes a JavaScript fragment (to start the closure) before the real JavaScript files, and another fragment (to end the closure) afterwards. (The jQuery Makefile does this, for example.) CoffeeScript’s built-in support for a closure that spans multiple files finally made it easy enough to break up the quickui.js runtime from a single monolithic JavaScript file into a much saner and more manageable collection of CoffeeScript files. That is, while the same degree of manageability could have been achieved in plain JavaScript, CoffeeScript made it simple enough that it actually got done.
  • The QuickUI runtime itself doesn’t create many classes, but in some cases (e.g., the unit test suite), classes could be created via CoffeeScript’s concise class syntax. This took advantages of QuickUI’s new support for creating web user interface controls using CoffeeScript class syntax.
  • JavaScript “for” loops were replaced with CoffeeScript list comprehensions.

Idiomatic CoffeeScript iteration over jQuery objects

Speaking of “for” loops, it turns out that a good deal of the QuickUI runtime deals with looping over jQuery objects. QuickUI controls are a subclass of jQuery object, and when looping over them in plain JavaScript, it’s often convenient to use jQuery’s $.each() function. For example, this function invokes foo(), a jQuery method or plugin, on each element in a jQuery object:
var $elements = $(".someClass");
$elements.each( function( index, element ) {
    $( element ).foo();
Note that $.each() gives the callback the plain DOM element, so you have to wrap that element with $(element) to get a jQuery object you can then manipulate. To simplify that, QuickUI’s runtime has long had a helper function called eachControl() that gives the callback the element as a wrapped jQuery object. (In QuickUI’s case, it also ensures the control’s particular subclass of jQuery is used, so that you can directly manipulate the control with that control’s own specific API.) E.g.:
var $buttons = $(".BasicButton");
$buttons.eachControl( function( index, $button ) {
To take best advantage of CoffeeScript’s supports for looping constructs, a simple jQuery plugin was created to create an array that can directly be used by CoffeeScript’s “for” loop and list comprehensions. This plugin, called Control.segments(), converts a jQuery object that holds a number of elements into an array of jQuery objects that each hold a single (wrapped) element. The definition of segments() in CoffeeScript is trivial:
Control::segments = ->
  ( @constructor element for element in @ )
QuickUI defines segments() on the Control class so as not to pollute the general jQuery plugin namespace, but the above definition could just as easily be done as jQuery::segments to create a plugin that worked with any jQuery object. In any event, the result of applying segments() to a jQuery object is an array that can be directly iterated over, while at the same time preserving type information.
$button.foo() for $button in Control(".BasicButton").segments()
Here, the looping variable $button ends up holding an instanceof BasicButton (which is also an instanceof jQuery), so $button.foo() invokes BasicButton.prototype.foo().
This “for” loop feels more direct and idiomatic in CoffeeScript than the standard $.each() approach. (In fact, it’d be nice if $.each() were extended so that, if invoked without arguments, it returned an array just like segments() does here.) This segments() call can also be used in CoffeeScript list comprehensions, thereby replacing many situations in which $.map() is currently used. A jsperf experiment suggests the segments() approach performs roughly as well as the standard $.each(). The generated JavaScript for segments() does build a temporary array of results, but it avoids the need for the callback function and the accompanying closure.


The new, CoffeeScript-based QuickUI source code gets compiled to a plain JavaScript file that’s essentially the same size as the handwritten JavaScript (61K vs 60K). The new runtime appears to perform and function just as well as the earlier plain JavaScript one, so QuickUI developers shouldn’t notice any difference. At the same time, the new CoffeeScript source code feels a lot tighter and easier to read and maintain.
This ability to write tighter code has already invited the successful implementation of a number of long-planned improvements to the runtime. It’s hard to say how many of those improvements were easier to tackle because of advantages in the CoffeeScript language itself, and how many were tackled just because CoffeeScript is a shiny, new tool. But as a general rule, it seems that CoffeeScript permits a programmer to more directly express their intention than one can do in JavaScript — and any language that can do that is a step forward.
Best of all, using any language like CoffeeScript that compiles to plain JavaScript enables a developer to finally break a hard dependence between language choice and the user’s browser. Now that QuickUI itself is written in CoffeeScript, it can take immediate advantage of improvements in CoffeeScript the day they appear, instead of waiting years for incremental JavaScript improvements to make their way through committee, into browsers, and into users’ hands.

QuickUI 0.9: a significant update

QuickUI 0.9 has been released. This is a major update which includes a number of changes that make it easier than ever to create reusable, extensible web user interface components.

  • The means by which classes are defined has been substantially simplified, which means that QuickUI is doing a lot less work when a class is defined. One result is that the previous Control.subclass() method has been replaced with a simple jQuery.sub() call. An overload still permits one to pass in a JavaScript object defining the class, but now everything in that object is simply copied over to the new class’ prototype. A new “inherited:” key now holds the Control JSON used to render the control; see the docs for more details.
  • The way you refer to an element within a control’s DOM has changed. Previously, you set an ID on an element in Control JSON using an “id:” key. Under the covers, this set an ID on the HTML element. As of QuickUI 0.9, to refer to an element in code, the Control JSON should include a “ref:” key. (See the tutorial example.) Under the covers, this will set a CSS class on the element. As before, this also implicitly creates an element reference function you can use to get that element through code: e.g., setting ref: “foo” on an element lets you get back to that element with the element reference function $foo().
  • A control’s initialize() method now implicitly invokes the initialize() methods of its base classes. Previously, you had to remember to have initialize() invoke this._super(), which was error prone. Failure to invoke this._super() would often mean that a base class’ event handlers didn’t get wired up, which could lead to bugs which were difficult to track down.
  • CoffeeScript support, announced earlier, has been folded into the core quickui.js runtime.

While the above work was underway, the QuickUI source code was substantially overhauled:

  • The aforementioned support for creating QuickUI controls in CoffeeScript has gone so well that QuickUI’s own runtime has now itself been ported to CoffeeScript. This does not mean that QuickUI developers need to use CoffeeScript; QuickUI supports plain JavaScript development and CoffeeScript development equally well. For people using QuickUI, this simply means that a number of planned improvements to QuickUI (including those listed above) could more easily be tackled.
  • The quickui.js runtime file itself is now built with Ben Alman’s handy Grunt build tool.
  • The optional QuickUI markup compiler has been moved into a separate GitHub repo, quickui-markup.

Please take a look!

QuickUI now lets you create user interface controls in CoffeeScript

QuickUI now supports the use and creation of web user interface controls in CoffeeScript, a language that adds many useful features to the JavaScript language. Through its compiler, CoffeeScript can be easily used as a replacement for JavaScript in many web projects.

QuickUI turns out to be a natural fit for CoffeeScript. One of the nice features in CoffeeScript is that you can create classes with the language’s built-in “class” syntax. You can take advantage of that syntax to create new QuickUI control classes, simply by extending the base Control class or any other control class:

# A simple button class in CoffeeScript
class window.HelloButton extends BasicButton
  constructor: -> return Control.coffee()
    content: "Hello, world!"
  genericSupport: true

QuickUI control classes are subclasses of jQuery, so one of the key features in QuickUI’s new support for CoffeeScript is actually being able to create jQuery subclasses in CoffeeScript. CoffeeScript generates a prototype-based class that is similar to the classes produced by jQuery’s $.sub() feature (a core part of jQuery that will be moved to a plugin in jQuery 1.8), but jQuery’s classes require a rather Byzantine construction sequence. This is handled through the boilerplate constructor shown above. When Control.coffee() is called, it fixes up the CoffeeScript class so that it conforms to jQuery’s notion of how its class constructors should work.

With this in place, it’s now possible to create QuickUI controls in CoffeeScript with significantly less source code than the equivalent plain JavaScript. This is an overall win for web UI developers. If your team hasn’t already taken a look at CoffeeScript, now might be a good time.

Creating QuickUI controls in CoffeeScript currently requires a plugin, but the plan is to fold CoffeeScript support directly into the quickui.js runtime. Read the documentation for QuickUI support of CoffeeScript for more details.